Rough Diplomacy


Éamon de Valera:  Man of Mystery

De Valera under arrest by British troops following the Rising. By Robert Schmuhl, Contributor February / March 2016 Éamon de Valera, the dominant political figure of Ireland’s 20th century, was an enigmatic figure to the end of his life.    Éamon de Valera was sentenced to death for his…

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Venetian Patent System

PROPER INTERPRETATION THE VENETIAN PATENT ACT OF 1474 Ted Sichelman* & Toni Veneri** ABSTRACT Scholars have widely and consistently contended that the Venetian Republic adopted the first “formal” patent system in its Patent Act of 1474. Based upon an extensive examination of archival material from the State Archives of Venice,…

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